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Chapter 18

1 2 When he had said this, Jesus went out with his disciples across the Kidron valley to where there was a garden, into which he and his disciples entered.

Judas his betrayer also knew the place, because Jesus had often met there with his disciples.

So Judas got a band of soldiers 3 and guards from the chief priests and the Pharisees and went there with lanterns, torches, and weapons.

Jesus, knowing everything that was going to happen to him, went out and said to them, “Whom are you looking for?”

They answered him, “Jesus the Nazorean.” 4 He said to them, “I AM.” Judas his betrayer was also with them.

When he said to them, “I AM,” they turned away and fell to the ground.

So he again asked them, “Whom are you looking for?” They said, “Jesus the Nazorean.”

Jesus answered, “I told you that I AM. So if you are looking for me, let these men go.”

5 This was to fulfill what he had said, “I have not lost any of those you gave me.”

10 Then Simon Peter, who had a sword, drew it, struck the high priest’s slave, and cut off his right ear. The slave’s name was Malchus. 6

11 Jesus said to Peter, “Put your sword into its scabbard. Shall I not drink the cup 7 that the Father gave me?”

12 So the band of soldiers, the tribune, and the Jewish guards seized Jesus, bound him,

13 and brought him to Annas 8 first. He was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, who was high priest that year.

14 It was Caiaphas who had counseled the Jews that it was better that one man should die rather than the people.

15 Simon Peter and another disciple 9 followed Jesus. Now the other disciple was known to the high priest, and he entered the courtyard of the high priest with Jesus.

16 But Peter stood at the gate outside. So the other disciple, the acquaintance of the high priest, went out and spoke to the gatekeeper and brought Peter in.

17 Then the maid who was the gatekeeper said to Peter, “You are not one of this man’s disciples, are you?” He said, “I am not.”

18 Now the slaves and the guards were standing around a charcoal fire that they had made, because it was cold, and were warming themselves. Peter was also standing there keeping warm.

19 The high priest questioned Jesus about his disciples and about his doctrine.

20 Jesus answered him, “I have spoken publicly to the world. I have always taught in a synagogue or in the temple area 10 where all the Jews gather, and in secret I have said nothing.

21 Why ask me? Ask those who heard me what I said to them. They know what I said.”

22 When he had said this, one of the temple guards standing there struck Jesus and said, “Is this the way you answer the high priest?”

23 Jesus answered him, “If I have spoken wrongly, testify to the wrong; but if I have spoken rightly, why do you strike me?”

24 Then Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas 11 the high priest.

25 Now Simon Peter was standing there keeping warm. And they said to him, “You are not one of his disciples, are you?” He denied it and said, “I am not.”

26 One of the slaves of the high priest, a relative of the one whose ear Peter had cut off, said, “Didn’t I see you in the garden with him?”

27 Again Peter denied it. And immediately the cock crowed. 12

28 Then they brought Jesus from Caiaphas to the praetorium. 13 It was morning. And they themselves did not enter the praetorium, in order not to be defiled so that they could eat the Passover.

29 So Pilate came out to them and said, “What charge do you bring (against) this man?”

30 They answered and said to him, “If he were not a criminal, we would not have handed him over to you.”

31 At this, Pilate said to them, “Take him yourselves, and judge him according to your law.” The Jews answered him, “We do not have the right to execute anyone,” 14

32 15 in order that the word of Jesus might be fulfilled that he said indicating the kind of death he would die.

33 So Pilate went back into the praetorium and summoned Jesus and said to him, “Are you the King of the Jews?”

34 Jesus answered, “Do you say this on your own or have others told you about me?”

35 Pilate answered, “I am not a Jew, am I? Your own nation and the chief priests handed you over to me. What have you done?”

36 Jesus answered, “My kingdom does not belong to this world. If my kingdom did belong to this world, my attendants (would) be fighting to keep me from being handed over to the Jews. But as it is, my kingdom is not here.”

37 So Pilate said to him, “Then you are a king?” Jesus answered, “You say I am a king. 16 For this I was born and for this I came into the world, to testify to the truth. Everyone who belongs to the truth listens to my voice.”

38 Pilate said to him, “What is truth?” When he had said this, he again went out to the Jews and said to them, “I find no guilt in him.

39 But you have a custom that I release one prisoner to you at Passover. 17 Do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews?”

40 They cried out again, “Not this one but Barabbas!” 18 Now Barabbas was a revolutionary.


1 [1-14] John does not mention the agony in the garden and the kiss of Judas, nor does he identify the place as Gethsemane or the Mount of Olives.

2 [1] Jesus went out: see ⇒ John 14:31 where it seems he is leaving the supper room. Kidron valley: literally, “the winter-flowing Kidron”; this wadi has water only during the winter rains.
3 [3] Band of soldiers: seems to refer to Roman troops, either the full cohort of 600 men (1/10 of a legion), or more likely the maniple of 200 under their tribune (⇒ John 18:12). In this case, John is hinting at Roman collusion in the action against Jesus before he was brought to Pilate. The lanterns and torches may be symbolic of the hour of darkness.
4 [5] Nazorean: the form found in ⇒ Matthew 26:71 (see the note on ⇒ Matthew 2:23) is here used, not Nazarene of Mark. I AM: or “I am he,” but probably intended by the evangelist as an expression of divinity (cf their appropriate response in ⇒ John 18:6); see the note on ⇒ John 8:24. John sets the confusion of the arresting party against the background of Jesus’ divine majesty.
5 [9] The citation may refer to ⇒ John 6:39; ⇒ 10:28; or ⇒ John 17:12.
6 [10] Only John gives the names of the two antagonists; both John and Luke mention the right ear.
7 [11] The theme of the cup is found in the synoptic account of the agony (⇒ Mark 14:36 and parallels).
8 [13] Annas: only John mentions an inquiry before Annas; cf ⇒ John 18:16, ⇒ 19-24; see the note on ⇒ Luke 3:2. It is unlikely that this nighttime interrogation before Annas is the same as the trial before Caiaphas placed by Matthew and Mark at night and by Luke in the morning.
9 [15-16] Another disciple . . . the other disciple: see the note on ⇒ John 13:23.
10 [20] I have always taught . . . in the temple area: cf ⇒ Mark 14:49 for a similar statement.
11 [24] Caiaphas: see ⇒ Matthew 26:3, ⇒ 57; ⇒ Luke 3:2; and the notes there. John may leave room here for the trial before Caiaphas described in the synoptic gospels.
12 [27] Cockcrow was the third Roman division of the night, lasting from midnight to 3 A.M.
13 [28] Praetorium: see the note on ⇒ Matthew 27:27. Morning: literally, “the early hour,” or fourth Roman division of the night, 3 to 6 A.M. The Passover: the synoptic gospels give the impression that the Thursday night supper was the Passover meal (⇒ Mark 14:12); for John that meal is still to be eaten Friday night.
14 [31] We do not have the right to execute anyone: only John gives this reason for their bringing Jesus to Pilate. Jewish sources are not clear on the competence of the Sanhedrin at this period to sentence and to execute for political crimes.
15 [32] The Jewish punishment for blasphemy was stoning (⇒ Lev 24:16). In coming to the Romans to ensure that Jesus would be crucified, the Jewish authorities fulfilled his prophecy that he would be exalted (⇒ John 3:14; ⇒ 12:32-33). There is some historical evidence, however, for Jews crucifying Jews.
16 [37] You say I am a king: see ⇒ Matthew 26:64 for a similar response to the high priest. It is at best a reluctant affirmative.
17 [39] See the note on ⇒ Matthew 27:15.
18 [40] Barabbas: see the note on ⇒ Matthew 27:16-17. Revolutionary: a guerrilla warrior fighting for nationalistic aims, though the term can also denote a robber. See the note on ⇒ Matthew 27:38.


1 Haec cum dixisset Iesus, egressus est cum discipulis suis trans torrentem Cedron, ubi erat hortus, in quem introivit ipse et discipuli eius.
2 Sciebat autem et Iudas, qui tradebat eum, locum, quia frequenter Iesus convenerat illuc cum discipulis suis.
3 Iudas ergo, cum accepisset cohortem et a pontificibus et pharisaeis ministros, venit illuc cum lanternis et facibus et armis.
4 Iesus itaque sciens omnia, quae ventura erant super eum, processit et dicit eis: “ Quem quaeritis? ”.
5 Responderunt ei: “ Iesum Nazarenum ”. Dicit eis: “ Ego sum! ”. Stabat autem et Iudas, qui tradebat eum, cum ipsis.
6 Ut ergo dixit eis: “ Ego sum! ”, abierunt retrorsum et ceciderunt in terram.
7 Iterum ergo eos interrogavit: “ Quem quaeritis? ”. Illi autem dixerunt: “ Iesum Nazarenum ”.
8 Respondit Iesus: “ Dixi vobis: Ego sum! Si ergo me quaeritis, sinite hos abire ”,
9 ut impleretur sermo, quem dixit: “ Quos dedisti mihi, non perdidi ex ipsis quemquam ”.
10 Simon ergo Petrus, habens gladium, eduxit eum et percussit pontificis servum et abscidit eius auriculam dextram. Erat autem nomen servo Malchus.
11 Dixit ergo Iesus Petro: “ Mitte gladium in vaginam; calicem, quem dedit mihi Pater, non bibam illum? ”.
12 Cohors ergo et tribunus et ministri Iudaeorum comprehenderunt Iesum et ligaverunt eum
13 et adduxerunt ad Annam primum; erat enim socer Caiphae, qui erat pontifex anni illius.
14 Erat autem Caiphas, qui consilium dederat Iudaeis: “ Expedit unum hominem mori pro populo ”.
15 Sequebatur autem Iesum Simon Petrus et alius discipulus. Discipulus autem ille erat notus pontifici et introivit cum Iesu in atrium pontificis;
16 Petrus autem stabat ad ostium foris. Exivit ergo discipulus alius, qui erat notus pontifici, et dixit ostiariae et introduxit Petrum.
17 Dicit ergo Petro ancilla ostiaria: “ Numquid et tu ex discipulis es hominis istius? ”. Dicit ille: “ Non sum! ”.
18 Stabant autem servi et ministri, qui prunas fecerant, quia frigus erat, et calefaciebant se; erat autem cum eis et Petrus stans et calefaciens se.
19 Pontifex ergo interrogavit Iesum de discipulis suis et de doctrina eius.
20 Respondit ei Iesus: “ Ego palam locutus sum mundo; ego semper docui in synagoga et in templo, quo omnes Iudaei conveniunt, et in occulto locutus sum nihil.
21 Quid me interrogas? Interroga eos, qui audierunt quid locutus sum ipsis; ecce hi sciunt, quae dixerim ego ”.
22 Haec autem cum dixisset, unus assistens ministrorum dedit alapam Iesu dicens: “ Sic respondes pontifici? ”.
23 Respondit ei Iesus: “ Si male locutus sum, testimonium perhibe de malo; si autem bene, quid me caedis? ”.
24 Misit ergo eum Annas ligatum ad Caipham pontificem.
25 Erat autem Simon Petrus stans et calefaciens se. Dixerunt ergo ei: “ Numquid et tu ex discipulis eius es? ”. Negavit ille et dixit: “ Non sum! ”.
26 Dicit unus ex servis pontificis, cognatus eius, cuius abscidit Petrus auriculam: “ Nonne ego te vidi in horto cum illo? ”.
27 Iterum ergo negavit Petrus; et statim gallus cantavit.
28 Adducunt ergo Iesum a Caipha in praetorium. Erat autem mane. Et ipsi non introierunt in praetorium, ut non contaminarentur, sed manducarent Pascha.
29 Exivit ergo Pilatus ad eos foras et dicit: “ Quam accusationem affertis adversus hominem hunc? ”.
30 Responderunt et dixerunt ei: “ Si non esset hic malefactor, non tibi tradidissemus eum ”.
31 Dixit ergo eis Pilatus: “ Accipite eum vos et secundum legem vestram iudicate eum! ”. Dixerunt ei Iudaei: “ Nobis non licet interficere quemquam ”,
32 ut sermo Iesu impleretur, quem dixit, significans qua esset morte moriturus.
33 Introivit ergo iterum in praetorium Pilatus et vocavit Iesum et dixit ei: “ Tu es rex Iudaeorum? ”.
34 Respondit Iesus: “ A temetipso tu hoc dicis, an alii tibi dixerunt de me? ”.
35 Respondit Pilatus: “ Numquid ego Iudaeus sum? Gens tua et pontifices tradiderunt te mihi; quid fecisti? ”.
36 Respondit Iesus: “ Regnum meum non est de mundo hoc; si ex hoc mundo esset regnum meum, ministri mei decertarent, ut non traderer Iudaeis; nunc autem meum regnum non est hinc ”.
37 Dixit itaque ei Pilatus: “ Ergo rex es tu? ”. Respondit Iesus: “ Tu dicis quia rex sum. Ego in hoc natus sum et ad hoc veni in mundum, ut testimonium perhibeam veritati; omnis, qui est ex veritate, audit meam vocem ”.
38 Dicit ei Pilatus: “ Quid est veritas? ”. Et cum hoc dixisset, iterum exivit ad Iudaeos et dicit eis: “ Ego nullam invenio in eo causam.
39 Est autem consuetudo vobis, ut unum dimittam vobis in Pascha; vultis ergo dimittam vobis regem Iudaeorum? ”.
40 Clamaverunt ergo rursum dicentes: “ Non hunc sed Barabbam! ”. Erat autem Barabbas latro.