1 When they drew near Jerusalem and came to Bethphage 2 on the Mount of Olives, Jesus sent two disciples,
saying to them, “Go into the village opposite you, and immediately you will find an ass tethered, and a colt with her. 3 Untie them and bring them here to me.
And if anyone should say anything to you, reply, ‘The master has need of them.’ Then he will send them at once.”
4 This happened so that what had been spoken through the prophet might be fulfilled:
“Say to daughter Zion, ‘Behold, your king comes to you, meek and riding on an ass, and on a colt, the foal of a beast of burden.'”
The disciples went and did as Jesus had ordered them.
5 They brought the ass and the colt and laid their cloaks over them, and he sat upon them.
6 The very large crowd spread their cloaks on the road, while others cut branches from the trees and strewed them on the road.
The crowds preceding him and those following kept crying out and saying: “Hosanna 7 to the Son of David; blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord; hosanna in the highest.”
And when he entered Jerusalem the whole city was shaken 8 and asked, “Who is this?”
And the crowds replied, “This is Jesus the prophet, 9 from Nazareth in Galilee.”
10 11 Jesus entered the temple area and drove out all those engaged in selling and buying there. He overturned the tables of the money changers and the seats of those who were selling doves.
And he said to them, “It is written: ‘My house shall be a house of prayer,’ 12 but you are making it a den of thieves.”
The blind and the lame 13 approached him in the temple area, and he cured them.
When the chief priests and the scribes saw the wondrous things 14 he was doing, and the children crying out in the temple area, “Hosanna to the Son of David,” they were indignant
15 and said to him, “Do you hear what they are saying?” Jesus said to them, “Yes; and have you never read the text, ‘Out of the mouths of infants and nurslings you have brought forth praise’?”
And leaving them, he went out of the city to Bethany, and there he spent the night.
16 When he was going back to the city in the morning, he was hungry.
Seeing a fig tree by the road, he went over to it, but found nothing on it except leaves. And he said to it, “May no fruit ever come from you again.” And immediately the fig tree withered.
When the disciples saw this, they were amazed and said, “How was it that the fig tree withered immediately?”
17 Jesus said to them in reply, “Amen, I say to you, if you have faith and do not waver, not only will you do what has been done to the fig tree, but even if you say to this mountain, ‘Be lifted up and thrown into the sea,’ it will be done.
Whatever you ask for in prayer with faith, you will receive.”
18 When he had come into the temple area, the chief priests and the elders of the people approached him as he was teaching and said, “By what authority are you doing these things? 19 And who gave you this authority?”
Jesus said to them in reply, “I shall ask you one question, 20 and if you answer it for me, then I shall tell you by what authority I do these things.
Where was John’s baptism from? Was it of heavenly or of human origin?” They discussed this among themselves and said, “If we say ‘Of heavenly origin,’ he will say to us, ‘Then why did you not believe him?’
21 But if we say, ‘Of human origin,’ we fear the crowd, for they all regard John as a prophet.”
So they said to Jesus in reply, “We do not know.” He himself said to them, “Neither shall I tell you by what authority I do these things. 22
23 “What is your opinion? A man had two sons. He came to the first and said, ‘Son, go out and work in the vineyard today.’
He said in reply, ‘I will not,’ but afterwards he changed his mind and went.
The man came to the other son and gave the same order. He said in reply, ‘Yes, sir,’ but did not go.
24 Which of the two did his father’s will?” They answered, “The first.” Jesus said to them, “Amen, I say to you, tax collectors and prostitutes are entering the kingdom of God before you.
25 When John came to you in the way of righteousness, you did not believe him; but tax collectors and prostitutes did. Yet even when you saw that, you did not later change your minds and believe him.
26 “Hear another parable. There was a landowner who planted a vineyard, 27 put a hedge around it, dug a wine press in it, and built a tower. Then he leased it to tenants and went on a journey.
When vintage time drew near, he sent his servants 28 to the tenants to obtain his produce.
But the tenants seized the servants and one they beat, another they killed, and a third they stoned.
Again he sent other servants, more numerous than the first ones, but they treated them in the same way.
Finally, he sent his son to them, thinking, ‘They will respect my son.’
29 But when the tenants saw the son, they said to one another, ‘This is the heir. Come, let us kill him and acquire his inheritance.’
30 They seized him, threw him out of the vineyard, and killed him.
What will the owner of the vineyard do to those tenants when he comes?”
They answered 31 him, “He will put those wretched men to a wretched death and lease his vineyard to other tenants who will give him the produce at the proper times.”
32 Jesus said to them, “Did you never read in the scriptures: ‘The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone; by the Lord has this been done, and it is wonderful in our eyes’?
33 Therefore, I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people that will produce its fruit.
( 34 The one who falls on this stone will be dashed to pieces; and it will crush anyone on whom it falls.)”
When the chief priests and the Pharisees 35 heard his parables, they knew that he was speaking about them.
And although they were attempting to arrest him, they feared the crowds, for they regarded him as a prophet.
1 [1-11] Jesus’ coming to Jerusalem is in accordance with the divine will that he must go there (cf ⇒ Matthew 16:21) to suffer, die, and be raised. He prepares for his entry into the city in such a way as to make it a fulfillment of the prophecy of ⇒ Zechariah 9:9 (⇒ Matthew 21:2) that emphasizes the humility of the king who comes (⇒ Matthew 21:5). That prophecy, absent from the Marcan parallel account (⇒ Matthew 11:1-11) although found also in the Johannine account of the entry (⇒ Matthew 12:15), is the center of the Matthean story. During the procession from Bethphage to Jerusalem, Jesus is acclaimed as the Davidic messianic king by the crowds who accompany him (⇒ Matthew 21:9). On his arrival the whole city was shaken, and to the inquiry of the amazed populace about Jesus’ identity the crowds with him reply that he is the prophet, from Nazareth in Galilee (⇒ Matthew 21:10, ⇒ 11).
2  Bethphage: a village that can no longer be certainly identified. Mark mentions it before Bethany (⇒ Mark 11:1), which suggests that it lay to the east of the latter. The Mount of Olives: the hill east of Jerusalem that is spoken of in ⇒ Zechariah 14:4 as the place where the Lord will come to rescue Jerusalem from the enemy nations.
4 [4-5] The prophet: this fulfillment citation is actually composed of two distinct Old Testament texts, ⇒ Isaiah 62:11 (Say to daughter Zion) and ⇒ Zechariah 9:9. The ass and the colt are the same animal in the prophecy, mentioned twice in different ways, the common Hebrew literary device of poetic parallelism. That Matthew takes them as two is one of the reasons why some scholars think that he was a Gentile rather than a Jewish Christian who would presumably not make that mistake (see Introduction).
5  Upon them: upon the two animals; an awkward picture resulting from Matthew’s misunderstanding of the prophecy.
6  Spread . . . on the road: cf ⇒ 2 Kings 9:13. There is a similarity between the cutting and strewing of the branches and the festivities of Tabernacles (⇒ Lev 23:39-40); see also ⇒ 2 Macc 10:5-8 where the celebration of the rededication of the temple is compared to that of Tabernacles.
7  Hosanna: the Hebrew means “(O Lord) grant salvation”; see ⇒ Psalm 118:25, but that invocation had become an acclamation of jubilation and welcome. Blessed is he . . . in the name of the Lord: see ⇒ Psalm 118:26 and the note on ⇒ John 12:13. In the highest: probably only an intensification of the acclamation, although Hosanna in the highest could be taken as a prayer, “May God save (him).”
8  Was shaken: in the gospels this verb is peculiar to Matthew where it is used also of the earthquake at the time of the crucifixion (⇒ Matthew 27:51) and of the terror of the guards of Jesus’ tomb at the appearance of the angel (⇒ Matthew 28:4). For Matthew’s use of the cognate noun, see the note on ⇒ Matthew 8:24.
10 [12-17] Matthew changes the order of (⇒ Mark 11:11, ⇒ 12, ⇒ 15) and places the cleansing of the temple on the same day as the entry into Jerusalem, immediately after it. The activities going on in the temple area were not secular but connected with the temple worship. Thus Jesus’ attack on those so engaged and his charge that they were making God’s house of prayer a den of thieves (⇒ Matthew 21:12-13) constituted a claim to authority over the religious practices of Israel and were a challenge to the priestly authorities. ⇒ Matthew 21:14-17 are peculiar to Matthew. Jesus’ healings and his countenancing the children’s cries of praise rouse the indignation of the chief priests and the scribes (⇒ Matthew 21:15). These two groups appear in the infancy narrative (⇒ Matthew 2:4) and have been mentioned in the first and third passion predictions (⇒ Matthew 16:21; ⇒ 20:18). Now, as the passion approaches, they come on the scene again, exhibiting their hostility to Jesus.
11  These activities were carried on in the court of the Gentiles, the outermost court of the temple area. Animals for sacrifice were sold; the doves were for those who could not afford a more expensive offering; see ⇒ Lev 5:7. Tables of the money changers: only the coinage of Tyre could be used for the purchases; other money had to be exchanged for that.
12  “My house . . . prayer’: cf ⇒ Isaiah 56:7. Matthew omits the final words of the quotation, “for all peoples” (“all nations”), possibly because for him the worship of the God of Israel by all nations belongs to the time after the resurrection; see ⇒ Matthew 28:19. A den of thieves: the phrase is taken from ⇒ Jeremiah 7:11.
13  The blind and the lame: according to ⇒ 2 Sam 5:8 (LXX) the blind and the lame were forbidden to enter “the house of the Lord,” the temple. These are the last of Jesus’ healings in
14  The wondrous things: the healings.
15  “Out of the mouths . . . praise’: cf ⇒ Psalm 8:3 (LXX).
16 [18-22] In Mark the effect of Jesus’ cursing the fig tree is not immediate; see ⇒ Mark 11:14, ⇒ 20. By making it so, Matthew has heightened the miracle. Jesus’ act seems arbitrary and ill-tempered, but it is a prophetic action similar to those of Old Testament prophets that vividly symbolize some part of their preaching; see, e.g., ⇒ Ezekiel 12:1-20. It is a sign of the judgment that is to come upon the Israel that with all its apparent piety lacks the fruit of good deeds (⇒ Matthew 3:10) and will soon bear the punishment of its fruitlessness (⇒ Matthew 21:43). Some scholars propose that this story is the development in tradition of a parable of Jesus about the destiny of a fruitless tree, such as ⇒ Luke 13:6-9. Jesus’ answer to the question of the amazed disciples (⇒ Matthew 21:20) makes the miracle an example of the power of prayer made with unwavering faith (⇒ Matthew 21:21-22).
17  See ⇒ Matthew 17:20.
18 [23-27] Cf ⇒ Mark 11:27-33. This is the first of five controversies between Jesus and the religious authorities of Judaism in ⇒ Matthew 21:23-⇒ 22:46 Presented in the form of questions and answers.
19  These things: probably his entry into the city, his cleansing of the temple, and his healings there.
20  To reply by counterquestion was common in rabbinical debate.
21  We fear . . . as a prophet: cf ⇒ Matthew 14:5.
22  Since through embarrassment on the one hand and fear on the other the religious authorities claim ignorance of the origin of John’s baptism, they show themselves incapable of speaking with authority; hence Jesus refuses to discuss with them the grounds of his authority.
23 [28-32] The series of controversies is interrupted by three parables on the judgment of Israel (⇒ Matthew 21:28-⇒ 22:14) of which this, peculiar to Matthew, is the first. The second (⇒ Matthew 21:33-46) comes from Mark (⇒ 12:1-12), and the third (⇒ Matthew 22:1-14) from Q; see ⇒ Luke 14:15-24. This interruption of the controversies is similar to that in Mark, although Mark has only one parable between the first and second controversy. As regards Mattew’s first parable, ⇒ Matthew 21:28-30 if taken by themselves could point simply to the difference between saying and doing, a theme of much importance in this gospel (cf ⇒ Matthew 7:21; ⇒ 12:50); that may have been the parable’s original reference. However, it is given a more specific application by the addition of ⇒ Matthew 21:31-32. The two sons represent, respectively, the religious leaders and the religious outcasts who followed John’s call to repentance. By the answer they give to Jesus’ question (⇒ Matthew 21:31) the leaders condemn themselves. There is much confusion in the textual tradition of the parable. Of the three different forms of the text given by important textual witnesses, one has the leaders answer that the son who agreed to go but did not was the one who did the father’s will. Although some scholars accept that as the original reading, their arguments in favor of it seem unconvincing. The choice probably lies only between a reading that puts the son who agrees and then disobeys before the son who at first refuses and then obeys, and the reading followed in the present translation. The witnesses to the latter reading are slightly better than those that support the other.
24  Entering . . . before you: this probably means “they enter; you do not.”
25  Cf ⇒ Luke 7:29-30. Although the thought is similar to that of the Lucan text, the formulation is so different that it is improbable that the saying comes from Q. Came to you . . . way of righteousness: several meanings are possible: that John himself was righteous, that he taught righteousness to others, or that he had an important place in God’s plan of salvation. For the last, see the note on ⇒ Matthew 3:14-15.
26 [33-46] Cf ⇒ Mark 12:1-12. In this parable there is a close correspondence between most of the details of the story and the situation that it illustrates, the dealings of God with his people. Because of that heavy allegorizing, some scholars think that it does not in any way go back to Jesus, but represents the theology of the later church. That judgment applies to the Marcan parallel as well, although the allegorizing has gone farther in Matthew. There are others who believe that while many of the allegorical elements are due to church sources, they have been added to a basic parable spoken by Jesus. This view is now supported by the Gospel of Thomas, #65, where a less allegorized and probably more primitive form of the parable is found.
28 [34-35] His servants: Matthew has two sendings of servants as against Mark’s three sendings of a single servant (⇒ Mark 11:2-5a) followed by a statement about the sending of “many others” (⇒ Mark 11:2, ⇒ 5b). That these servants stand for the prophets sent by God to Israel is clearly implied but not made explicit here, but see ⇒ Matthew 23:37. His produce: cf ⇒ Mark 12:2 “some of the produce.” The produce is the good works demanded by God, and his claim to them is total.
29  Acquire his inheritance: if a Jewish proselyte died without heir, the tenants of his land would have final claim on it.
30  Threw him out . . . and killed him: the change in the Marcan order where the son is killed and his corpse then thrown out (⇒ Matthew 12:8) was probably made because of the tradition that Jesus died outside the city of Jerusalem; see ⇒ John 19:17; ⇒ Hebrews 13:12.
31  They answered: in ⇒ Mark 12:9 the question is answered by Jesus himself; here the leaders answer and so condemn themselves; cf ⇒ Matthew 21:31. Matthew adds that the new tenants to whom the vineyard will be transferred will give the owner the produce at the proper times.
32  Cf ⇒ Psalm 118:22-23. The psalm was used in the early church as a prophecy of Jesus’ resurrection; see ⇒ Acts 4:11; ⇒ 1 Peter 2:7. If, as some think, the original parable ended at ⇒ Matthew 21:39 it was thought necessary to complete it by a reference to Jesus’ vindication by God.
33  Peculiar to Matthew. Kingdom of God: see the note on ⇒ Matthew 19:23-24. Its presence here instead of Matthew’s usual “kingdom of heaven” may indicate that the saying came from Matthew’s own traditional material. A people that will produce its fruit: believing Israelites and Gentiles, the church of Jesus.
34  The majority of textual witnesses omit this verse. It is probably an early addition to Matthew from ⇒ Luke 20:18 with which it is practically identical.
35  The Pharisees: Matthew inserts into the group of Jewish leaders (⇒ Matthew 21:23) those who represented the Judaism of his own time.